Objective.

Because of questions about the basis for the use of naloxone in resuscitation of the newborn, we wished to evaluate the use of naloxone at our institution and an affiliated hospital.

Methodology.

Evaluation of the actual use of naloxone at a university hospital and a community hospital: we document naloxone use by daily survey for a month in one; in the other, we perform a retrospective record review of 1 year's use.

Results.

The university hospital had 240 births during February, 1998. Naloxone was given twice: once, 7 minutes before delivery to a woman at term who had received opiates about 2 hours previously; and once, intramuscularly, to a premature infant for apnea, before being intubated. The community hospital had 2044 births during fiscal 1998. Twenty-six neonates were identified as having received naloxone. Of the 26, 13 received naloxone without needing ventilatory support; all 13 with respiratory depression had a predisposing perinatal complication.

Conclusion.

The use of naloxone in practice may not conform to the American Academy of Pediatrics' guidelines for use in resuscitation of the newborn. The use of naloxone in resuscitation of the newborn should be reevaluated.

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