Candida species are now the fourth leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections (8%) across all age groups with the highest crude mortality (40%).1Among children, neonates, particularly the increasing numbers of very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infants (<1500 g), are at great risk. The National Epidemiology of Mycosis Study Group reported that over a 2-year period, in 6 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) across the country, 1.2% of all neonates developed candidemia, and of these, 82% were VLBW. The crude mortality of the infants with candidemia was 23%, compared with 4.7% of those without fungal disease.2 Furthermore, invasive candidiasis in the NICU is becoming more common. From 1981 to 1995, the number of cases of candidemia in one NICU increased from 2.5/1000 to 28.5/1000.3

In this issue of Pediatrics, Kicklighter et al4provide a well-designed, prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, intention-to-treat study to determine if...

You do not currently have access to this content.