Kostmann's syndrome is a congenital disorder that causes an impairment of myeloid differentiation in the bone marrow characterized by severe neutropenia, which can be treated with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). We present the case of a 13-year-old boy with Kostmann's syndrome who was treated with recombinant human G-CSF from age 3.5 years. His growth and development was normal, although complicated by intermittent infections. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement revealed severe osteopenia at the spine and hips (lumbar spine BMD 0.486 g/cm2; Z score −3.6), and he was referred to the Endocrine Service. Relevant laboratory evaluation showed a pretreatment ionized calcium level at the upper limit of normal (1.28 mmol/L; range: 1.13–1.32 mmol/L), suppressed intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level (12 pg/mL; range: 10–65 pg/mL), and a low 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D level (21 pg/mL; range: 24–65 pg/mL). He had evidence of increased bone turnover evidenced by elevated urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) cross-links (46.9 nmol/mmol creatinine; range: 2–34 nmol/mmol creatinine) and a simultaneous increase in markers of bone formation with elevated osteocalcin level (200 ng/mL; normal: 20–80 ng/mL) and alkaline phosphatase level (236 IU/mL; normal: 38–126 IU/mL). Because of clinical concern for his skeletal health, bisphosphonate therapy with intravenous pamidronate was initiated. One month after treatment, the iPTH and DPD cross-links were in the normal range (54 pg/mL and 17.7 nmol/mmol creatinine, respectively) and the 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D level was elevated (111 pg/mL). Four months after treatment, there was a striking increase in BMD at the lumbar spine (+30.86%), femoral necks (left, +20.02%; right, +17.98%), and total hips (left, +18.40%; right, +15.94%). Seven months after bisphosphonate therapy, his biochemical parameters showed a return toward pretreatment levels with increasing urinary DPD cross-links (28.7 nmol/mmol creatinine) and decreasing iPTH (26 pg/mL). However, the BMD continued to increase (8 months posttreatment), but the magnitude of the increment was attenuated (lumbar-spine, +4.8%; left total hip, +1.2% and right total hip +2.4%), relative to BMD at 4 months. Eight months after the initial treatment, his iPTH was suppressed at 14 pg/mL and he again received pamidronate (at a lower dose); 3 months later, he had an additional increase in BMD (lumbar spine +7.4%, left total hip +3.9%, right total hip +2.7%), relative to the previous study. We hypothesize that prolonged administration of G-CSF as treatment for Kostmann's syndrome is associated with increased bone resorption, mediated by osteoclast activation and leading to bone loss. In children, the resulting osteopenia can be successfully managed with antisreorptive bisphosphonate therapy with significant improvement in bone density. Measurements of biochemical parameters of bone turnover can be used to monitor the magnitude and duration of the therapeutic response and the need for BMD reassessment and, perhaps, retreatment.

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