Win Tin eloquently articulated in his editorial “Oxygen Therapy: 50 Years of Uncertainty” that neonatal care providers do not understand how best to use oxygen in the most vulnerable premature infants despite >50 years of oxygen therapy in neonatal medicine. We do not understand optimal oxygenation management in extremely low gestational age neonates (<28 weeks’ gestation), because we do not know what are safe and effective upper and lower limits of oxygen levels or saturation ranges in both the early and later neonatal courses.1–7  There has been no implementation of the most powerful tool in clinical research, the randomized, controlled trial, to resolve the uncertainty since the early clinical trials in the 1950s.8–15  No randomized control trial has clarified the relation between retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and blood oxygen (Pao2), transcutaneous oxygen (tco2), or oxygen saturation...

You do not currently have access to this content.