Clinicians have been faced with much publicity and contradictory scientific evidence regarding a recently described condition termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS). It has been proposed that children with PANDAS experience tics, obsessive-compulsive behavior, and perhaps other neuropsychiatric symptoms as an autoimmune response to streptococcal infection. We review current scientific information and conclude that PANDAS remains a yet-unproven hypothesis. Until more definitive scientific proof is forthcoming, there seems to be insufficient evidence to support 1) routine microbiologic or serologic testing for group A streptococcus in children who present with neuropsychiatric symptoms or 2) the clinical use of antibiotic or immune-modifying therapies in such patients. The optimum diagnostic and therapeutic approach awaits the results of additional research studies.

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