Comprehensive new guidelines for screening, targeted testing, and treating latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in children and adolescents are presented. The recent epidemiology of TB and data on risk factors for LTBI are reviewed. The evidence-based recommendations provided emphasize the paradigm that children and adolescents should be screened for risk factors by using a risk-factor questionnaire for TB and LTBI and tested with the tuberculin skin test only if ≥1 risk factor is present. The use of administrative or mandated tuberculin skin tests for entry to day care, school, or summer camp is strongly discouraged. Treatment regimens, suggestions to improve adherence, and methods to monitor toxicities are summarized. Children and adolescents with LTBI represent the future reservoir for cases of TB. Thus, detecting and treating LTBI in children and adolescents will contribute to the elimination of TB in the United States.

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