This article presents the executive summary of the presentations and discussions at the Workshop on Research in Neonatology sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Perinatal Pediatrics convened in January 2004. In this article, the scientific aspects are summarized, highlighting the current knowledge gaps and identifying research priorities with a focus on emerging technologies. In a separate article, issues concerning workforce needs and shortages and board-certification requirements are presented. Full-length articles on the presented topics will be published in the Journal of Perinatology.

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