OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this work was to describe risk profiles for metabolic syndrome during adolescence and identify the childhood antecedents for these profiles among a nonclinical sample of non-Hispanic, white girls.
METHODS. Participants were part of a longitudinal study (n = 154) and were assessed at 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 years of age. At 13 years, girls were grouped based on values for the 6 metabolic syndrome factors (blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, waist circumference, and blood glucose) using a mixture model approach. Fat mass was measured by dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry. Dietary intake was assessed by a 24-hour recall. Mothers reported family demographics and disease history. Girls' physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and fitness levels were also assessed.
RESULTS. Statistical support was strongest for a 4-group solution: (1) lower metabolic syndrome risk (n = 62), (2) lower dyslipidemia risk (n = 36), (3) lower hypertension risk (n = 33), and (4) higher metabolic syndrome risk (n = 21). At 13 years, the hypertension and higher metabolic syndrome risk groups had significantly higher weight status and percentage of body fat compared with the lower metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia risk groups. In addition, the higher metabolic syndrome and hypertension risk groups had greater increases in both BMI and fat mass across childhood. The hypertension and higher metabolic syndrome risk groups had significantly more family history of type 2 diabetes and obesity. The higher metabolic syndrome risk group consumed significantly more servings of sweetened beverages during childhood. The dyslipidemia risk group had the lowest physical activity participation during childhood, and the lower metabolic syndrome risk group had the highest fitness levels at age 13 years.
CONCLUSIONS.A risk typology consisting of 4 groups was identified based on the components of metabolic syndrome. Findings on the antecedents of this risk typology suggest ways to identify those at higher risk for chronic disease and point to potential opportunities for intervention during childhood to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.