Although there is a growing body of literature criticizing the use of mere statistical significance as a measure of clinical impact, we submit that this concept has not been widely incorporated in the pediatric literature. This is especially problematic because an understanding of the limitations of using only statistical significance to evaluate treatments is necessary for readers of Pediatrics to draw accurate conclusions from data presented in this journal. Here we highlight some of the issues related to the complex problem of evaluating treatment effects and the importance of using clinical significance in addition to the traditional P value.

Currently, the magical boundary of P < .05 holds great importance in whether a manuscript is accepted for publication, a research application is funded, or a new drug is approved by the Food and Drug Administration. We submit that if a treatment is to be useful to our children, it is...

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