Approaches to providing comprehensive coordinated care for individuals with complex diseases include the medical home approach, the chronic care model in primary care, and disease-specific, multidisciplinary specialty clinics. There is uneven availability and utilization of multidisciplinary specialty clinics for different genetic diseases. For 2 disorders (ie, hemophilia and cystic fibrosis), effective national networks of specialty clinics exist and reach large proportions of the target populations. For other disorders, notably, sickle cell disease, fewer such centers are available, centers are less likely to be networked, and centers are used less widely. Models of comanagement are essential for promoting ongoing communication and coordination between primary care and subspecialty services, particularly during the transition from pediatric care to adult care. Evaluation of the effectiveness of different models in improving outcomes for individuals with genetic diseases is essential.

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