The goal was to assess the effectiveness of complete (3-dose) or partial (1- or 2-dose) immunization with pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) against rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in US clinical practice.
A case-control evaluation was conducted in February through June 2008 at an emergency department in Houston, Texas. Case patients with rotavirus AGE (N = 90) were identified through testing for rotavirus in fecal specimens obtained from 205 children 15 days through 23 months of age presenting with AGE. Control groups included rotavirus-negative AGE patients (N = 115), concurrently enrolled patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) (N = 228), and up to 10 age- and zip code-matched children sampled from the Houston-Harris County Immunization Registry (HHCIR) for each case patient >8 months of age. Immunization data were obtained from parent records, health care providers, and/or the HHCIR. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated as 1 minus odds of RV5 vaccination for case patients versus control patients, after adjustment for age at presentation and birth date.
The vaccine effectiveness of a complete RV5 series was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 70%–96%) and 85% (95% CI: 55%–95%) with rotavirus-negative AGE and ARI control patients, respectively. Immunization data were available for 44% of case patients (n = 40) from the HHCIR; the estimated 3-dose vaccine effectiveness with these HHCIR control patients was 82% (95% CI: 19%–96%). A complete RV5 series conferred 100% protection (95% CI: 71%–100%) against severe rotavirus disease requiring hospitalization and 96% protection (95% CI: 72%–99%) against disease requiring intravenous hydration. Vaccine effectiveness of 1 and 2 doses against hospitalization and emergency department visits was 69% (95% CI: 13%–89%) and 81% (95% CI: 13%–96%), respectively, using rotavirus-negative AGE and ARI control groups combined.
In this setting, a complete series of RV5 was highly effective against severe rotavirus AGE. Partial immunization also conferred substantial protection.