In November 2008, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) doubled the recommended daily intake of vitamin D for infants and children, from 200 IU/day (2003 recommendation) to 400 IU/day. We aimed to assess the prevalence of infants meeting the AAP recommended intake of vitamin D during their first year of life.


Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, conducted from 2005 to 2007, we estimated the percentage of infants who met vitamin D recommendations at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.5, 9, and 10.5 months (n = 1952–1633).


The use of oral vitamin D supplements was low, regardless of whether infants were consuming breast milk or formula, ranging from 1% to 13%, varying by age. Among infants who consumed breast milk but no formula, only 5% to 13% met either recommendation. Among mixed-fed infants, 28% to 35% met the 2003 recommendation, but only 9% to 14% would have met the 2008 recommendation. Among those who consumed formula but no breast milk, 81% to 98% met the 2003 recommendation, but only 20% to 37% would have met the 2008 recommendation.


Our findings suggest that most US infants are not consuming adequate amounts of vitamin D according to the 2008 AAP recommendation. Pediatricians and health care providers should encourage parents of infants who are either breastfed or consuming <1 L/day of infant formula to give their infants an oral vitamin D supplement.

You do not currently have access to this content.