In December 2008, the Institute of Medicine published new recommendations regarding duty hours and supervision of residents' training in the United States. These recommendations evoked immediate concerns from program directors and leadership in all surgical and medical disciplines, including pediatrics. To address these concerns, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education convened a Duty Hours Congress in Chicago, Illinois, on June 11 and 12, 2009. This report summarizes the opinions and testimony of the organizations (American Academy of Pediatrics, Association of Pediatric Program Directors, and Council of Pediatric Specialties) that were invited to represent pediatrics at the Duty Hours Congress. The American Academy of Pediatrics, the Association of Pediatric Program Directors, and the Council of Pediatric Specialties supported the basic principles of the Institute of Medicine report regarding patient safety, resident supervision, resident safety, and the importance of effective “hand-offs”; however, the organizations opposed additional reductions in resident duty hours given the potential unintended adverse effects on the competency of trainees, the costs of graduate medical education, and the future pediatric workforce. These organizations agreed that additional changes in graduate medical education must be data driven and consider residents within the broader system of health care. The costs and benefits must be carefully analyzed before implementing the Institute of Medicine recommendations.

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