The objective of this study was to assess the effect of maternal antibiotic exposure on neonatal early-onset sepsis (EOS) rates over an 18-year period.
A review was performed of infant and maternal records for all culture- proven cases of EOS in infants delivered at the Brigham and Women's Hospital (Boston, MA) in 1990–2007.
Data were analyzed from 335 EOS cases over periods that differed with respect to hospital policy for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis against group B Streptococcus (GBS): 1990–1992 (no prophylaxis); 1993–1996 (risk-based); and 1997–2007 (screening-based). The overall incidence of EOS decreased over these periods (3.70 vs 2.23 vs 1.59 cases per 1000 live births; P < .0001). No change in the incidence of infection with ampicillin-resistant organisms was observed overall or among very low birth weight infants. However, an increased proportion of infections were caused by ampicillin- resistant organisms. Mothers of infants with ampicillin-resistant infections were more likely to have been treated with ampicillin (P = .0001). Overall peripartum antibiotic use increased during the study period primarily because of increased use of penicillin G and clindamycin, with no significant change in the use of ampicillin.
Predominant use of penicillin G for GBS prophylaxis resulted in decreased incidence of EOS. No change in the incidence of ampicillin-resistant EOS was observed, but resistant cases were associated with peripartum ampicillin exposure. These findings suggest that obstetricians should consider preferential use of penicillin G for GBS prophylaxis.