With the exception of oral medications, most traditional forms of drug delivery outside the operating suite require an injection with a needle—a process that is painful and anxiety-provoking, risks needle stick injury, and consumes valuable staff time. In addition, intravenous access in pediatrics may be difficult for inexperienced providers. Intranasal medication delivery offers an alternative method of drug delivery that is often as fast in onset as intravenous medication, usually painless, inexpensive, easy to deliver, and effective in a variety of acute pediatric medical conditions. This article briefly reviews the most common uses for intranasal medication delivery in pediatrics: pain control, anxiolysis, and seizure control.
Intranasal Medication Delivery for Children: A Brief Review and Update
Algae at the Pump?: Algae, the microorganisms that are the basis of the aquatic food chain and producers of more than 40% of the world's oxygen, may soon have yet another critically important role to play–that of oil producer. As reported in The New York Times (Pollack A, July 26, 2010), the race is on to develop algae that can convert sunlight and carbon dioxide into oils that can be refined and used as fuel. While algae are currently more expensive to purchase, they can potentially produce 10 to 100 times more fuel per acre than either corn or soybeans. Finding the right algae for production can either be through selection and enhancement of naturally occurring strains with the preferred properties or through genetic engineering. The benefit to using algae for the production of hydrocarbons is that they are remarkably efficient, absorb enormous amounts of carbon dioxide, and can be grown under a variety of seemingly hostile conditions. Even after burning of the end product, there would be no net increase in carbon dioxide production. The downside, other than cost and technical issues, include possible disruption of the food chain or oxygen production by mutated or accidently released “super algae” that out-compete naturally occurring forms. With oil reserves running low and the toxic effects of released oil on the nation's mind, it seems only time before we'll see signs at the pump noting “at least 10% from algae”.
Noted by WVR, MD
FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: Dr Wolfe is affiliated with Wolfe Tory Medical, Inc, the manufacturer of the MAD nasal drug delivery device; and Dr Braude has no financial relationships relevant to this article to disclose.
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Timothy R. Wolfe, Darren A. Braude; Intranasal Medication Delivery for Children: A Brief Review and Update. Pediatrics September 2010; 126 (3): 532–537. 10.1542/peds.2010-0616
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