We report here 2 pediatric cases of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) that were observed in Italy. Both families came from an Eastern European country, which is notably an area with a high prevalence of MDR TB. An increase of new cases of MDR TB in developed countries is expected over the next years because of migratory flow, and specific measures and strategies need to be taken to prevent the propagation and dissemination of MDR TB. An efficacious treatment including linezolid and moxifloxacin was administered for 13 months in 1 case. No adverse reactions were detected during close child monitoring. Linezolid and newer fluoroquinolones such as moxifloxacin have been reported to be effective for MDR-TB treatment in adults. On the contrary, there is limited available evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of these drugs in infants and children with MDR TB. The use of second-line drugs not approved for use in children may be necessary to treat a life-threatening disease such as MDR TB, but it requires careful monitoring to quickly recognize the occurrence of dose- and duration-dependent adverse drug reactions.

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