The goal was to provide an update of the 2004 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) statement about screening for visual impairment in children <5 years of age.


The USPSTF examined evidence on the association of screening for visual impairment in children 1 to 5 years of age with improved health outcomes, the accuracy of risk factor assessment and screening tests, the effectiveness of early detection and treatment, and the harms of screening and treatment.


The USPSTF recommends vision screening for all children at least once between the ages of 3 and 5 years, to detect the presence of amblyopia or its risk factors (grade B recommendation). The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of vision screening for children <3 years of age (I statement).

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