We review here 7 cases of neonatal transfusion-associated babesiosis at a NICU in the northeast United States. Transfusion from 2 infected units of blood resulted in the 7 cases described. The clinical presentation was highly variable in this cohort; the extremely low birth weight neonates were the most severely affected. Antibiotic therapy was effective in neonates with mild and asymptomatic infection; however, double-volume exchange blood transfusion with prolonged multidrug treatment was required for the 2 most severe cases. The risk of Babesia microti infection is not eliminated through current blood-bank practices. Neonatologists in endemic areas should have a high index of suspicion for babesiosis in premature infants exposed to blood transfusions.

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