OBJECTIVE:

To determine the trends and outcomes of the national Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program (PHBPP) for infants born from 1994 to 2008.

METHODS:

PHBPPs in state and city public health jurisdictions annually submitted program outcome reports to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The annual number of births to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive women was estimated and used to evaluate the percentage of PHBPP-identified HBsAg-positive pregnant women. PHBPP reports were used to assess program objectives achieved, and infant outcomes by 12 to 24 months of age.

RESULTS:

From 1994 to 2008, the estimated number of annual births to HBsAg-positive women increased from 19 208 to 25 600 (P < .001). The annual number of PHBPP-managed infants increased (P < .001), comprising 40.8% to 50.5% of the estimated number. On average, 94.4% of PHBPP-managed infants received hepatitis B immunoglobulin and hepatitis B vaccine within 1 day of birth. The percentage of infants who completed the vaccine series by age 12 months decreased from 86.0% to 77.7% (P = .004), but the percentage who received postvaccination testing increased from 25.1% to 56.0% (P < .001). Incidence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection among tested infants decreased from 2.1% in 1999 to 0.8% in 2008 (P = .001).

CONCLUSIONS:

The PHBPP achieved substantial progress in preventing perinatal hepatitis B virus infection in the United States, despite an increasing number of at-risk infants. Significant gaps remain in identifying HBsAg-positive pregnant women, and completing management and assessment of their infants to ensure prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission.

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