To determine the trends and outcomes of the national Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program (PHBPP) for infants born from 1994 to 2008.
PHBPPs in state and city public health jurisdictions annually submitted program outcome reports to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The annual number of births to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive women was estimated and used to evaluate the percentage of PHBPP-identified HBsAg-positive pregnant women. PHBPP reports were used to assess program objectives achieved, and infant outcomes by 12 to 24 months of age.
From 1994 to 2008, the estimated number of annual births to HBsAg-positive women increased from 19 208 to 25 600 (P < .001). The annual number of PHBPP-managed infants increased (P < .001), comprising 40.8% to 50.5% of the estimated number. On average, 94.4% of PHBPP-managed infants received hepatitis B immunoglobulin and hepatitis B vaccine within 1 day of birth. The percentage of infants who completed the vaccine series by age 12 months decreased from 86.0% to 77.7% (P = .004), but the percentage who received postvaccination testing increased from 25.1% to 56.0% (P < .001). Incidence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection among tested infants decreased from 2.1% in 1999 to 0.8% in 2008 (P = .001).
The PHBPP achieved substantial progress in preventing perinatal hepatitis B virus infection in the United States, despite an increasing number of at-risk infants. Significant gaps remain in identifying HBsAg-positive pregnant women, and completing management and assessment of their infants to ensure prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission.