Sweet syndrome is an inflammatory disease characterized by fever and painful erythematous plaques with a dermal neutrophilic infiltrate. It is most common in adults, where it is often parainflammatory or paraneoplastic, but is rare in children. We describe 3 cases of neonatal Sweet syndrome, including 1 patient who had myelodysplastic syndrome and immunodeficiency, the first report of a premalignancy underlying infantile Sweet syndrome. We reviewed the literature on patients presenting with neutrophilic dermatosis in the first 6 months of life. Of 20 cases, 6 had a probable viral etiology, 4 primary immunodeficiencies, 3 neonatal lupus syndrome, 1 gastrointestinal involvement, 1 HIV, and 5 probable genetic cases. Three of these had chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature syndrome, caused by mutations in the PSMB8 gene. Most children who presented within the first 6 weeks of life had either a serious underlying condition, such as primary immunodeficiency, or a genetic Sweet syndrome, with 2 fatalities among this latter group. The outcome of postinfective cases was good. Extracutaneous involvement was unusual, whereas postinflammatory scarring and cutis laxa occurred in a minority of patients. In conclusion, Sweet syndrome in the neonatal period often heralds a serious underlying disorder and requires thorough investigation.

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