There is a crisis of credibility facing the child health research community because of the paucity of reliable estimates of the effects of interventions in children. Associations between risk of bias assessments and treatment effect estimates have important implications, for the clinician, and the families face important challenges as decision-makers stemming from results that exaggerate treatment effectiveness or safety. Consequently, interventions that are not efficacious and potentially harmful may be prescribed, whereas interventions that truly are efficacious may be withheld.1,5 

Positive trends in pediatric research have been observed since the first trial was published in 1948. Specifically, there has been a substantial increase in the number of trials published over time, the proportion of randomized to nonrandomized controlled trials, and the proportion of child to adult trials.6 Reporting of methods has also improved; however, methodological quality remains modest.6 

Three studies have specifically examined risk...

You do not currently have access to this content.