The systematic review by Ohlsson and Jacobs on the NIDCAP approach concluded that there is no evidence that NIDCAP improves long-term neurodevelopmental or short-term medical outcome. Despite their conclusion, “Because NIDCAP was not effective in reducing adverse outcomes, performing cost-effectiveness analyses became redundant,” they report that NIDCAP is associated with a better daily weight gain, a shorter hospitalization, and an increase in Bayley Scale of Infant Development scores at 9 months.

Developmental care and environmental strategies emerged in response to the background of the potential harmful effects of traditional NICU settings. When neonatal intensive care started in the 1960s, the priority was survival, as in adult intensive care. It took some time before the effects on the vulnerable growing preterm brain from the stressful environment and mother–infant separation were recognized. Many NICUs still consider technical aspects of care as a priority and parents as visitors. In Europe most elements...

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