We conducted genital health wellness screens in male kindergarten children between the ages of 3 and 6 years to assess the incidence of congenital abnormalities and their treatment.


We performed genital examinations on 2241 male children in 8 kindergartens. We screened for 4 conditions: phimosis, hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and hydrocele/hernia. We assessed the incidence of these conditions and the effectiveness or lack of their treatment.


Among this sample, 55.5% children aged 3 to 4 years and 44.1% aged 5 to 6 years were found to have persistent phimosis. The circumcision rate, excluding those performed in conjunction with hypospadias repair, was 2.8%, but it carried a 3.2% complication rate. There was a lower incidence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism than reported in the literature at 0.2% and 0.4%, respectively. Our hypospadias repair rate was 60%, with a success rate of 66.7%. Our cryptorchidism repair rate was only 25%, and all repairs were performed above the age of 5 years. Incidence of hydrocele and hernias was 1.2%, and our treatment rate was 46.2%. Finally, we found high incidence of keloid formation, 73.3%, associated with inguinal incision.


There was high prevalence of phimosis in Chinese boys, a natural physiologic condition, up to age 6. There appeared to be lower incidences of hypospadias and cryptorchidism in our screened population. However, there were opportunities for us to improve the diagnosis and treatment of these 2 conditions. Our hydrocele/hernia incidence was on par with literature, but we had a lower treatment rate. Finally, we found a high incidence of keloid formation associated with inguinal incision.

You do not currently have access to this content.