Throughout the history of medicine, clinicians have worked to classify disease. As early as 1662, John Graunt studied the London Bills of Mortality to report death rates by condition. Originally created for epidemiologic purposes, systems of disease terminology became useful for other purposes, including billing. Since 1979, the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision with Clinical Modifications (ICD-9-CM) has been used for third-party payment in the United States. Worldwide, the 10th revision of the ICD (ICD-10) has been used with local modifications in numerous countries for a decade or more. Now, all US entities covered by the Health Insurance Portability Accountability Act will be required to use ICD-10-CM on or after October 1, 2015. ICD-10-CM has about 5 times as many codes as ICD-9-CM. It is hoped the new codes will be better aligned with current medical terminology, characterize health information that could not be described with ICD-9-CM (eg,...

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