Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke during pregnancy and infancy has been linked to development of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema in young children. It is unclear whether these risks persist into adolescence.

Exposure to second-hand smoke in utero or during infancy influences the development of allergic disease up to adolescence. Excess risks for asthma and rhinitis were seen primarily in early childhood, whereas those for eczema occurred at later ages.

Prone sleeping is a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Cerebral oxygenation and blood pressure are reduced in the prone sleeping position in healthy term infants. Preterm infants are at significantly increased risk of SIDS.

Preterm infants display reduced cerebral oxygenation compared with term infants, most prominently at 2 to 3 months corrected age in the prone position when blood pressure is concurrently reduced. This may contribute to the increased risk for SIDS among infants born preterm.

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