We describe here the case of a 13-month-old boy who acquired HIV infection postnatally through breastfeeding in a developed country in 2012. His mother had regular pregnancy follow-up and was found to be seronegative for HIV on 2 consecutive screening tests (during pregnancy and just after delivery). However, 1 year later, diagnosis of HIV infection arose in both of them after a pediatric emergency department visit for bronchitis when unexplained hepatosplenomegaly and inflammatory syndrome were noted. The negative maternal viral load found just after delivery confirmed that the mother’s seroconversion occurred postnatally, which allowed for active HIV transmission during lactation and lack of the efficient preventive measures that have implemented in Belgium for years. We discuss this uncommon but still existing mode of HIV transmission in industrialized countries and highlight the importance of implementing new targeted health education interventions in addition to constant clinicians’ awareness.

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