Given the improved efficacy of the nasal live-attenuated influenza virus vaccine (LAIV) compared with the injectable vaccine in children, we aimed to determine its safety in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF).
A cohort of 168 study participants, aged 2 to 18 years with CF, vaccinated with LAIV between October 1, 2012, and January 30, 2013, was followed prospectively for 56 days after initial vaccination in 3 pediatric CF clinics across the province of Quebec. Days 0 to 28 post-LAIV were considered the at-risk period for all outcomes of interest, and days 29 to 56 post-LAIV were considered the non–at-risk period. Incident respiratory deteriorations were defined as an unscheduled medical visit, hospitalization, or a new course of oral antibiotics for respiratory complaints. Using a self-controlled design, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were used to compare at-risk and non–at-risk periods.
Comparing at-risk to non–at-risk periods, there was no significant increase in the rate of incident respiratory deteriorations (IRR, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.11–4.27) or all-cause hospitalizations (IRR, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.30–4.81). A greater proportion of participants reported experiencing at least 1 minor respiratory and/or systemic adverse event after immunization during the at-risk period compared with the non–at-risk period (77% vs 54%, respectively). During the first week after LAIV, 13 of 168 (8%) children reported some wheezing, with the vast majority, 9 of 13 (69%), on the day of vaccination.
There was no increased risk of respiratory deterioration or all-cause hospitalization associated with LAIV in our study population. LAIV seems well tolerated in children and adolescents with CF.