Renal masses in children may be discovered during routine clinical examination or incidentally during the course of diagnostic or therapeutic procedures for other causes. Renal cancers are rare in the pediatric population and include a spectrum of pathologies that may challenge the clinician in choosing the optimal treatment. Correct identification of the lesion may be difficult, and the appropriate surgical procedure is paramount for lesions suspected to be malignant. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive overview regarding the spectrum of renal tumors in the pediatric population, both benign and malignant, and their surgical management.

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