Childhood interstitial lung diseases are rare disorders of largely unknown etiology characterized by variable types and degrees of parenchymal inflammation. Disease spectrum and prognosis considerably from those in adults. Respiratory bronchiolitis–associated interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD) is a well-described entity occurring almost exclusively in adults who are current heavy cigarette smokers. We describe an 11-year-old boy with failure to thrive, dry cough, and exertional dyspnea for 1 year who was diagnosed with RB-ILD due to heavy passive smoking exposure. Although RB-ILD is well defined in smoking adults, there are no reports in the English literature in nonactive smokers, especially in childhood.

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