This article reviews current evidence for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) interventions for children aged <3 years, based on peer-reviewed articles published up to December 2013. Several groups have adapted treatments initially designed for older, preschool-aged children with ASD, integrating best practice in behavioral teaching methods into a developmental framework based on current scientific understanding of how infants and toddlers learn. The central role of parents has been emphasized, and interventions are designed to incorporate learning opportunities into everyday activities, capitalize on “teachable moments,” and facilitate the generalization of skills beyond the familiar home setting. Our review identified several comprehensive and targeted treatment models with evidence of clear benefits. Although some trials were limited to 8- to 12-week outcome data, enhanced outcomes associated with some interventions were evaluated over periods as long as 2 years. Based on this review, recommendations are proposed for clinical practice and future research.
Early Intervention for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Under 3 Years of Age: Recommendations for Practice and Research
FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: Dr Zwaigenbaum was the site Principal Investigator of a study sponsored by SynapDx (he received operating funds but no honoraria). Drs Fein and Robins are co-owners of M-CHAT, LLC, which licenses use of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers in electronic products. Dr Stone is the author of the Screening Tool for Autism in Two-Year-Olds and receives a share of royalties from sales of this instrument. The authors received an honorarium as well as travel expenses from Autism Forum for contributing to the expert panels.
- Views Icon Views
- Share Icon Share
- Search Site
Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Margaret L. Bauman, Roula Choueiri, Connie Kasari, Alice Carter, Doreen Granpeesheh, Zoe Mailloux, Susanne Smith Roley, Sheldon Wagner, Deborah Fein, Karen Pierce, Timothy Buie, Patricia A. Davis, Craig Newschaffer, Diana Robins, Amy Wetherby, Wendy L. Stone, Nurit Yirmiya, Annette Estes, Robin L. Hansen, James C. McPartland, Marvin R. Natowicz; Early Intervention for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Under 3 Years of Age: Recommendations for Practice and Research. Pediatrics October 2015; 136 (Supplement_1): S60–S81. 10.1542/peds.2014-3667E
Download citation file: