Infants <6 months old with influenza are at risk for adverse outcomes. Our objective was to compare influenza outcomes in infants <6 months old born to women who did and did not report influenza vaccine during pregnancy.
The study included all women who delivered from 12/2005 to 3/2014 at Intermountain facilities and their infants. Influenza outcomes included infant influenza-like illness (ILI), laboratory-confirmed influenza, and influenza hospitalizations.
The cohort included 245 386 women and 249 387 infants. Overall, 23 383 (10%) pregnant women reported influenza immunization. This number increased from 2.2% before the H1N1 pandemic to 21% postpandemic (P < .001). A total of 866 infants <6 months old had ≥1 ILI encounter: 32 (1.34/1000) infants born to women reporting immunization and 834 (3.70/1000) born to women who did not report immunization (relative risk [RR] 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26–0.52; P < .001). A total of 658 infants had laboratory-confirmed influenza: 20 (0.84/1000) born to women reporting immunization and 638 (2.83/1000) born to unimmunized women (RR 0.30; 95% CI, 0.19–0.46; P < .001). A total of 151 infants with laboratory-confirmed influenza were hospitalized: 3 (0.13/1000) born to women reporting immunization and 148 (0.66/1000) born to unimmunized women (RR 0.19; 95% CI, 0.06–0.60; P = .005).
Self-reported influenza immunization during pregnancy was low but increased after the H1N1 pandemic. Infants born to women reporting influenza immunization during pregnancy had risk reductions of 64% for ILI, 70% for laboratory-confirmed influenza, and 81% for influenza hospitalizations in their first 6 months. Maternal influenza immunization during pregnancy is a public health priority.