During a pediatric endocrinology clinic visit, a 16-year-old boy presented with his family for evaluation of his endocrine axes due to history of bone marrow transplantation. He had previously been followed elsewhere; transfer records stated his family had been told that his fertility was likely to be impaired, but his parents had not shared this with him. It was also unclear from review of the notes whether any discussions regarding sexual function had occurred.

Historically, reproductive health in pediatrics has focused primarily on contraception and prevention of sexually transmitted infections. However, there is now a growing body of literature discussing the long-term impact of many pediatric conditions and treatments on fertility and sexual function, such as oncologic therapy, hematologic or autoimmune conditions requiring bone marrow transplantation, renal and rheumatologic disorders in which alkylators are used, cross-sex hormonal therapy used in the care of transgender youth, disorders of sex development, and...

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