Children and adolescents affected by prenatal exposure to alcohol who have brain damage that is manifested in functional impairments of neurocognition, self-regulation, and adaptive functioning may most appropriately be diagnosed with neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal exposure. This Special Article outlines clinical implications and guidelines for pediatric medical home clinicians to identify, diagnose, and refer children regarding neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal exposure. Emphasis is given to reported or observable behaviors that can be identified as part of care in pediatric medical homes, differential diagnosis, and potential comorbidities. In addition, brief guidance is provided on the management of affected children in the pediatric medical home. Finally, suggestions are given for obtaining prenatal history of in utero exposure to alcohol for the pediatric patient.

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