Pediatricians provide a medical home for children with congenital syndromes who often need complex multidisciplinary care. There are some syndromes associated with thrombocytopenia, inherited platelet disorders, factor deficiencies, connective tissue disorders, and vascular abnormalities, which pose a real risk of bleeding in affected children associated with trauma or surgeries. The risk of bleeding is not often an obvious feature of the syndrome and not well documented in the literature. This makes it especially hard for pediatricians who may care for a handful of children with these rare congenital syndromes in their lifetime. This review provides an overview of the etiology of bleeding in the different congenital syndromes along with a concise review of the hematologic and nonhematologic clinical manifestations. It also highlights the need and timing of diagnostic evaluation to uncover the bleeding risk in these syndromes emphasizing a primary care approach.

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