Shared decision-making (SDM) is a decision-making model in which “both parties share information…take steps to build consensus about the preferred treatment, and [reach an agreement] on the treatment to implement.”1 It exists on a continuum between 2 extremes (decision-making driven solely by the patient or by the physician) and represents a balance between patient and physician decisional responsibility that is guided by the patient and calibrated to the clinical context.2 At its inception, SDM was proposed to be the “ideal for the physician–patient relationship” as medicine pivoted from paternalism.3 It is now the standard decision-making model in medicine.

Despite SDM’s prominence, however, problems linger. The evidence to support the purported benefits of SDM (increased patient understanding and satisfaction, improved adherence, and better health outcomes) is equivocal.4 Physicians are also struggling with how to practice SDM.5 In addition, little is known about how SDM should be...

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