In 2015, 21% of children, 15 000 000, were living in poverty (<100% of the federal poverty level).1 Forty-three percent of children, 31 000 000, were living below 200% of the federal poverty level, which is a better measure of economic hardship for families in the United States. Children are the poorest age group in our society and more than twice as poor as older adults. It is well documented that poor children are more likely to have poor health outcomes, including chronic conditions such as asthma. They are also at greater risk for poor social, emotional, and behavioral problems, including disobedience, impulsivity, and anxiety.2 Behavioral and mental health problems are common comorbidities of chronic conditions in children living in poverty.

In this issue of Pediatrics, Pulcini et al3 present the results of their secondary analyses of the National Survey of Children’s Health for the years...

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