Most children with anaphylaxis in the emergency department (ED) are hospitalized. Opportunities exist to safely reduce the hospitalization rate for children with anaphylaxis by decreasing unnecessary hospitalizations. A quality improvement (QI) intervention was conducted to improve care and reduce hospitalization rates for children with anaphylaxis.
We used the Model for Improvement and began with development and implementation in 2011 of a locally developed evidence-based guideline based on national recommendations for the management of anaphylaxis. Guideline adoption and adherence were supported by interval reminders and feedback to providers. Patients from 2008 to 2014 diagnosed with anaphylaxis were identified, and statistical process control methods were used to evaluate change in hospitalization rates over time. The balancing measure was any return visit to the ED within 72 hours. To control for secular trends, hospitalization rates for anaphylaxis at 34 US children’s hospitals over the same time period were analyzed.
Over the study period, there were 1169 visits for children with anaphylaxis, of which 731 (62%) occurred after the QI implementation. The proportion of children hospitalized decreased from 54% to 36%, with no increase in the 72-hour ED revisit rate. The hospitalization rate across 34 other US pediatric hospitals remained static at 52% over the study period.
We safely reduced unnecessary hospitalizations for children with anaphylaxis and sustained the change over 3 years by using a QI initiative that included evidence-based guideline development and implementation, reinforced by provider reminders and structured feedback.