Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent disorder defined by a combination of symptoms that are likely due to malfunctions in those areas of the brain that are associated with executive functions, including the prefrontal cortex,1 caudate nucleus,2 and cerebellar vermis.3 Over the years, multiple factors have been identified that probably contribute to its possible etiology. The most prominent has been genetics; ADHD is often identified by a high familial pattern with a high concordance in twin studies.4 However, no specific gene, gene pattern, or marker gene has been able to explain all but a small amount of the variance. In addition, environmental factors both pre- and postnatally (including prenatal alcohol5 and smoking exposure6 and postnatal head injuries7) have been found to increase the risk of its presence. There is also a great deal of variation in the presentation of the disorder, with...

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