We recently reported the short-term results of this trial revealing that higher-calorie refeeding (HCR) restored medical stability earlier, with no increase in safety events and significant savings associated with shorter length of stay, in comparison with lower-calorie refeeding (LCR) in hospitalized adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Here, we report the 1-year outcomes, including rates of clinical remission and rehospitalizations.


In this multicenter, randomized controlled trial, eligible patients admitted for medical instability to 2 tertiary care eating disorder programs were randomly assigned to HCR (2000 kcals per day, increasing by 200 kcals per day) or LCR (1400 kcals per day, increasing by 200 kcals every other day) within 24 hours of admission and followed-up at 10 days and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post discharge. Clinical remission at 12 months post discharge was defined as weight restoration (≥95% median BMI) plus psychological recovery. With generalized linear mixed effect models, we examined differences in clinical remission over time.


Of 120 enrollees, 111 were included in modified intent-to-treat analyses, 60 received HCR, and 51 received LCR. Clinical remission rates changed over time in both groups, with no evidence of significant group differences (P = .42). Medical rehospitalization rates within 1-year post discharge (32.8% [19 of 58] vs 35.4% [17 of 48], P = .84), number of rehospitalizations (2.4 [SD: 2.2] vs 2.0 [SD: 1.6]; P = .52), and total number of days rehospitalized (6.0 [SD: 14.8] vs 5.1 [SD: 10.3] days; P = .81) did not differ by HCR versus LCR.


The finding that clinical remission and medical rehospitalization did not differ over 1-year, in conjunction with the end-of-treatment outcomes, support the superior efficacy of HCR as compared with LCR.

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