Arginine vasopressin (AVP)–mediated osmoregulatory disorders, such as diabetes insipidus (DI) and syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) are common in the differential diagnosis for children with hypo- and hypernatremia and require timely recognition and treatment. DI is caused by a failure to concentrate urine secondary to impaired production of or response to AVP, resulting in hypernatremia. Newer methods of diagnosing DI include measuring copeptin levels; copeptin is AVP’s chaperone protein and serves as a surrogate biomarker of AVP secretion. Intraoperative copeptin levels may also help predict the risk for developing DI after neurosurgical procedures. Copeptin levels hold diagnostic promise in other pediatric conditions, too. Recently, expanded genotype and phenotype correlations in inherited DI disorders have been described and may better predict the clinical course in affected children and infants. Similarly, newer formulations of synthetic AVP may improve pediatric DI treatment. In contrast to DI, SIADH, characterized by inappropriate AVP secretion, commonly leads to severe hyponatremia. Contemporary methods aid clinicians in distinguishing SIADH from other hyponatremic conditions, particularly cerebral salt wasting. Further research on the efficacy of therapies for pediatric SIADH is needed, although some adult treatments hold promise for pediatrics. Lastly, expansion of home point-of-care sodium testing may transform management of SIADH and DI in children. In this article, we review recent developments in the understanding of pathophysiology, diagnostic workup, and treatment of better outcomes and quality of life for children with these challenging disorders.

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