Video Abstract

Video Abstract


Routine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is recommended at ages 11 to 12 years and may be initiated as early as 9 years of age.


Data were derived from the National Immunization Survey-Teen, spanning 2008–2018. Using health care provider–verified vaccination histories, we examined trends in human papillomavirus vaccination up-to-date (HPV-UTD) rates within ages 9 to 12 years. Furthermore, we assessed vaccination status by sociodemographic factors and US state of residence.


Overall, amid evidence of recent stagnation, HPV vaccination between ages 9 to 12 increased over the years. Initiation rates rose from 17.3% in 2008 to 62.8% in 2018, and HPV-UTD rates rose from 13.5% in 2011 to 32.8% in 2018. After the inception of gender-neutral HPV vaccination, HPV-UTD rates between 2011 and 2018 rose by 31.9% among boys and only 6.6% among girls. For most of the study period, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic individuals had higher rates of initiation and HPV-UTD than non-Hispanic white individuals. In 2018, vaccination initiation rates exceeded 70% in several states; however, HPV-UTD rates in most US states were <50%, excluding Rhode Island (61.6%), Colorado (58.7%), Hawaii (53.5%), District of Columbia (53.2%), and Ohio (50%).


HPV vaccination within ages 9 to 12 years is suboptimal. To leverage the substantial benefits of HPV vaccination within this age range, it is imperative that conscious efforts are taken at the national and state levels to promote HPV vaccination for this age group.

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