Our understanding of inflammatory bowel disease is changing as we identify genetic variants associated with immune dysregulation. Inflammatory bowel disease undetermined, even when diagnosed in older children and adolescents, in the setting of multiple inflammatory and infectious diseases should raise the suspicion of complex immune dysregulation with a monogenic basis. We report a case of inflammatory bowel disease undetermined triggered by exposure to a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug in a 16-year-old girl with a background history of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, cytopenias, recurrent respiratory tract and middle ear infections, and esophageal candidiasis. Immunologic assessment included measurement of immunoglobulin levels, lymphocyte immunophenotyping, B-cell functional tests, and whole-exome sequencing. Laboratory investigation revealed defects of humoral immunity, including mild persistent hypogammaglobulinemia affecting all 3 isotypes and absent isohemagglutinins. Whole exome sequencing revealed a heterozygous TNFRSF13B (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 13B, or Transmembrane Activator and Calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand Interactor, TACI) gene variant, which is associated with common variable immunodeficiency and the development of autoimmune diseases. In conclusion, a clinical history of recurrent infections, atypical histologic features of inflammatory bowel disease, additional autoimmune manifestations, and an inadequate response to conventional therapy should prompt the physician to refer to an immunologist with the query of inborn error of immunity. We report how extensive immune evaluation and genetic diagnosis can individualize care and facilitate a multidisciplinary team approach.
Multisystem Autoimmune Inflammatory Disease, Including Colitis, Due to Inborn Error of Immunity
POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors have indicated they have no potential conflicts of interest to disclose.
FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: The authors have indicated they have no financial relationships relevant to this article to disclose.
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Aniko Malik, Elizabeth Stringer, Neil Warner, Johan van Limbergen, Anthony Vandersteen, Aleixo Muise, Beata Derfalvi; Multisystem Autoimmune Inflammatory Disease, Including Colitis, Due to Inborn Error of Immunity. Pediatrics November 2021; 148 (5): e2021050614. 10.1542/peds.2021-050614
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