A pediatric dermatology expert working group performed a narrative review to describe care related to congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) in neonates and infants. There are no published guidelines for most aspects of care, including routine skin care and visit intervals. Few guidelines exist for surgical management; newer recommendations favor conservative practice. Emerging evidence contributes to recommendations for screening MRI to evaluate for neural melanosis and related central nervous system complications, however, more research is needed. Risk for melanoma is generally low, but those with large, giant, or multiple CMN have a higher risk. Multidisciplinary care, with a focus on family and patient preferences, is of paramount importance. Without standardized screening and management guidelines, questions abound regarding appropriate physical examination intervals, potential treatment including full or partial excision, timing and frequency of imaging, melanoma risk, and assessment for neural melanosis.
This review highlights the current state of knowledge concerning care of patients with CMN, reveals gaps in the literature surrounding skin care, and provides management recommendations. We additionally discuss cutaneous complications of CMN, such as pruritus, hypertrichosis, and wound healing. Resources and references for families and providers can help patients navigate this sometimes challenging diagnosis. Finally, we contribute expert care recommendations to the current body of literature as a foundation for the development of future, more comprehensive care guidelines.