From design to dissemination, including diverse populations in clinical research studies enhances the generalizability of scientific outcomes and enhances the capacity of research to affect policy and practice. But diverse inclusion does more than improve the quality of science; it also is a critical matter of health equity. Profound past ethical failures in medical research, such as Tuskegee and Willowbrook, have led to a focus on the principle of informed consent and the protection of marginalized and vulnerable populations from the potential harms of research. However, the ethical principle of beneficence also requires investigators to ensure that the benefits of research, in terms of both participation and outcomes, are equitably distributed. Purposeful, diverse recruitment balances these principles and ensures that populations are neither disproportionately targeted nor excluded from clinical research.2,3 

Implicit bias among clinicians and scientists is an important but understudied factor that shapes inclusion in...

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