We have previously demonstrated that standardized handoff from prehospital to hospital clinicians can improve cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients in a pediatric emergency department (ED). We leveraged our previous quality improvement initiative to standardize performance of a bundle of 5 discrete aspects of resuscitation for OHCA patients: intravenous or intraosseous catheter (IV/IO) access, epinephrine administration, advanced airway placement, end-tidal capnography (ETCO2) application, and cardiac rhythm verbalization. We aimed to reduce time to completion of the bundle from 302 seconds at baseline to less than 120 seconds within 1 year.


A multidisciplinary team performed video-based review of actual OHCA resuscitations in our pediatric ED. We designed interventions aimed at key drivers of bundle performance. Interventions included specific roles and responsibilities and a standardized choreography for each bundle element. To assess the effect of the interventions, time to performance of each bundle element was measured by standardized review of video recordings from our resuscitation bay. Balancing measures were time off the chest and time to defibrillator pad placement.


We analyzed 56 cases of OHCA from May 2019 through May 2021. Time to bundle completion improved from a baseline of 302 seconds to 147 seconds. Four of 5 individual bundle elements also demonstrated significant improvement. These improvements were sustained without any negative impact on balancing measures.


Standardized choreography for the initial minutes of ED cardiac arrest resuscitation shows promise to decrease time to crucial interventions in children presenting to the pediatric ED with OHCA.

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