Shorter courses of antimicrobial therapy for bacterial infections potentially reduce antimicrobial resistance (colonization and infection) at individual and population levels, adverse effects of therapy, costs of therapy, and possibly, long-term adverse impacts on the host microbiome.1–4  Current guidelines in the United States and Europe recommend 7 to 14 days of therapy for urinary tract infection (UTI) in children,5,6  but comparative data on treatment courses in children are limited, despite UTI being the most common bacterial infection in children and adults.7,8  Identifying effective shorter courses would be of great benefit, with caveats that undertreatment could have short- (eg, acute kidney injury, sepsis) and long-term consequences (eg, hypertension, renal scarring [ie, nephron loss]).

In this issue of Pediatrics, Montini et al report results from a randomized trial comparing 5- versus 10-day courses of oral amoxicillin-clavulanate for...

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