Video Abstract

Video Abstract

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To assess nationally endorsed claims-based quality measures in pediatric sickle cell anemia (SCA).


Using data from the Sickle Cell Data Collection programs in California and Georgia from 2010 to 2019, we evaluated 2 quality measures in individuals with hemoglobin S/S or S/β-zero thalassemia: (1) the proportion of patients aged 3 months to 5 years who were dispensed antibiotic prophylaxis for at least 300 days within each measurement year and (2) the proportion of patients aged 2 to 15 years who received at least 1 transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) within each measurement year. We then evaluated differences by year and tested whether performance on quality measures differed according to demographic and clinical factors.


Only 22.2% of those in California and 15.5% in Georgia met or exceeded the quality measure for antibiotic prophylaxis, with increased odds associated with rural residence in Georgia (odds ratio 1.61; 95% confidence interval 1.21–2.14) compared with urban residence and a trend toward increased odds associated with a pediatric hematologist prescriber (odds ratio 1.28; 95% confidence interval 0.97, 1.69) compared with a general pediatrician. Approximately one-half of the sample received an annual assessment of stroke risk using TCD (47.4% in California and 52.7% in Georgia), with increased odds each additional year in both states and among younger children.


The rates of receipt of recommended antibiotic prophylaxis and annual TCD were low in this sample of children with SCA. These evidence-based quality measures can be tracked over time to help identify policies and practices that maximize survival in SCA.

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