Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health threat in adolescents and young adults. However, its burden in this population remains unclear. This study aimed to assess TB burden and changing trends in individuals aged 10 to 24 years from 1990 to 2019.


All data were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. We calculated the percentage of relative changes in incident cases, deaths, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The temporal trends of the incidence, mortality, and DALYs were assessed using estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs).


At global level, TB incidence (per 100 000 population) decreased from 144.12 in 1990 to 97.56 in 2019, with average 1.28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36%–1.19%) of decline per year. Similar decreasing trends occurred across sex, age, sociodemographic index regions, and in most Global Burden of Disease study regions and countries. TB incidence in female adolescents decreased faster than that in male. However, there was an increasing trend in the incidence of extensively drug-resistant TB (EAPC = 11.23, 95% CI: 8.22–14.33) and multidrug-resistant TB without extensive drug resistance (EAPC = 3.28, 95% CI: 1.73–4.86). South Africa had the highest increase in TB incidence (EAPC = 3.51, 95% CI: 3.11–3.92).


Global TB incidence, mortality, and DALYs in adolescents and young adults decreased from 1990 to 2019. However, the incidence of drug-resistant TB increased. TB remains a threat in adolescents and young adults worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries.

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