Acute fetal blood-loss usually occurs during labor and delivery. This condition may be the second commonest cause for anemia in infants at birth. Although the causes for fetal hemorrhage are diverse, they result in a single entity, posthemorrhagic anemia or shock immediately after birth. The signs and management are essentially the same regardless of cause. It is suggested that "posthemorrhagic anemia and shock in the newborn" be an accepted and standard pediatric diagnosis. The infants are pale but have no hepato-splenomegaly or edema. If the condition is severe the infants have weakness, tachycardia and distress out of proportion to any degree of cyanosis. Pallor persists in spite of administration of oxygen. Under such conditions immediate re-expansion of blood volume is imperative and lifesaving.

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