I.Q. tests were administered to 38 pairs of diabetic and nondiabetic children. In each family the nondiabetic child was a randomly selected sibling of the diabetic child. No relation was found between I.Q. difference (diabetic I.Q. - sibling I.Q.) and duration of illness. Children in whom diabetes began before the age of 5 years had significantly lower I.Q.'s than their nondiabetic siblings. There was no statistical difference between the diabetic and his sibling when the disease began after 5 years of age. A suggestive relationship (but not statistically significant) was found between the number of episodes of hypoglycemia and acidosis and the magnitude of the I.Q. difference between diabetics and siblings for those with onset of disease before 5 years of age.

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